Applied scanning probe methods 5 scanning probe microscopy techniques
Nacre has received great attention due to its nanoscale hierarchical structure and extraordinary mechanical properties. Meanwhile, the nanoscale piezoelectric properties of nacre have also been investigated but the structure—function relationship has never been addressed. In this work, firstly we realized quantitative nanomechanical mapping of nacre of a green abalone using atomic force acoustic microscopy AFAM. Then, we conducted both AFAM and piezoresponse force microscopy PFM mapping in the same scanning area to explore the correlations between the nanomechanical and piezoelectric properties.
The PFM testing shows that the organic biopolymer exhibits a significantly stronger piezoresponse than the mineral tablets, and they permeate each other, which is very difficult to reproduce in artificial materials. Finally, the phase hysteresis loops and amplitude butterfly loops were also observed using switching spectroscopy PFM, implying that nacre may also be a bio-ferroelectric material.
The obtained nanoscale structural and functional properties of nacre could be very helpful in understanding its deformation mechanism and designing biomimetic materials of extraordinary properties. The article was received on 26 May , accepted on 22 Jul and first published on 31 Jul If you are not the author of this article and you wish to reproduce material from it in a third party non-RSC publication you must formally request permission using Copyright Clearance Center. Go to our Instructions for using Copyright Clearance Center page for details.
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This may take some time to load. Boundary Tracking Firstly, boundary point determination criterion BPDC for searching boundary points based on the height difference of adjacent sampling points is defined. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. The flowchart of the boundary tracking algorithm and the local scanning. Lost-Step Processing and Adaptive Step Size Adjustment Lost-step Figure 1 c occurs when the predicted next boundary point cannot be found in a sinusoidal cycle at the sharp position; it indicates that the probe has been away from the desired boundary, so we need to correct the movement direction of probe to correctly track the target boundary.
Local Scanning Based on Boundary Tracking Unavoidable contaminants near the target edge can cause incorrect boundary points detection or the fitted boundary curve cannot accurately represent the true target boundary, which can have impact correct estimation of the local scan area.
Results and Discussions 3. Experimental Setup In the preceding sections, we assume that the sample is fixed, while probe is moving. Figure 3. Boundary Tracking of Microholes The probe tracks the outer edge of the microhole without entering into the trench to facilitate the diameter measurement. The tracking processes of microhole array can be summarized as follows: Calibrate the probe tip position by the SEM image of probe or scan a target under the assistant with optical microscope positioning and image processing.
Figure 4. Local Scanning of Tapping Mode AFM To demonstrate the local scanning performance of the proposed algorithm, a structure of multilayer graphene on silicon substrate was tracked and locally scanned. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Conclusions A boundary tracking and local scanning method is developed for fast scanning of the region of interest.
Conflicts of Interest The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. References 1. Salapaka M. Scanning Probe Microscopy. Binnig G. Atomic force microscope. Physical Review Letters. Hansma P. The scanning ion-conductance microscope. Ando T. A high-speed atomic force microscope for studying biological macromolecules. High-speed atomic force microscopy for nano-visualization of dynamic biomolecular processes.
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Scanning probe microscopy
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High-speed cycloid-scan atomic force microscopy. Invited review article: high-speed flexure-guided nanopositioning: mechanical design and control issues. Maroufi M. High-stroke silicon-on-insulator MEMS nanopositioner: Control design for non-raster scan atomic force microscopy. Zhang K. Characterization of nanoscale temperature fields during electromigration of nanowires. Grosse, K. Heterogeneous nanometer-scale Joule and Peltier effects in subnm thin phase change memory devices.
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Thermal Sci. Mensch, P. One-dimensional behavior and high thermoelectric power factor in thin indium arsenide nanowires. Vermeersch, B. Song, B. Enhancement of near-field radiative heat transfer using polar dielectric thin films. Thermal transport into graphene through nanoscopic contacts.
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Next-generation nanotechnology laboratories with simultaneous reduction of all relevant disturbances. Nanoscale 5 , — Drechsler, U. Cantilevers with nano-heaters for thermomechanical storage application. Ghoneim, H. In situ doping of catalyst-free InAs nanowires. Nanotechnology 23 , Download references. Furthermore, we thank M. Tschudy, B. Veselaj, U. Drechsler and K. Lister for experimental support. We also acknowledge support by S. Karg, E. Knoll, W. Nirmalraj, C. Bolliger and W. Riess, as well as discussions with M. Lenczner and Y. The work was conceived by B.
The experimental setup and analysis were designed and implemented by F.
Scanning Probe Microscopy
The experiments were performed by F. The nanowire was grown by H. The manuscript was written by F. Correspondence to Fabian Menges. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Reprints and Permissions. Progress in Surface Science Journal of Heat Transfer Analytical Chemistry ACS Nano By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines.
If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Advanced search. Skip to main content. Subjects Microscopy Nanoscale devices Nanowires. Abstract Imaging temperature fields at the nanoscale is a central challenge in various areas of science and technology. Introduction A key challenge in nanoscience is the development of versatile techniques to map variations in temperature with nanometre-scale spatial resolution 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7. Results Self-heating of a metal interconnect To demonstrate the technique, we first characterize the Joule heating of a gold interconnect structure shown schematically in Fig.
By simultaneously measuring the temperature-dependent steady-state DC and the alternating AC response of the probe sensor, the sample temperature increase can be derived as Figure 1: Illustration of the experiment. Full size image. Figure 2: Self-heating of a nanoscale metal interconnect structure. Figure 3: Direct imaging of local Joule and Peltier effects of a self-heated nanowire. Discussion To discuss the method presented here, we first consider the sample-temperature resolution of our measurements. Methods Experimental setup Experiments where conducted using a custom-built high-vacuum SThM 35 situated in an electromagnetically shielded, temperature-stabilized laboratory Additional information How to cite this article: Menges, F.
References 1 Cahill, D. Article Google Scholar 3 Brites, C. Google Scholar 8 Okabe, K. Article Google Scholar 9 Baffou, G. Article Google Scholar 22 Kim, K. Google Scholar 23 Menges, F. Google Scholar 28 Wielgoszewski, G. Article Google Scholar 32 Mensch, P. Article Google Scholar 38 Ghoneim, H. Article Google Scholar Download references.